In a recent study, researchers from Boonshoft School of Medicine at Wright State University used a synthetic intestine to discover the adaption of microbiome from bacterial correspondent of western diet to a diet composing of dietary fats. It is found that number of fatty acid metabolizers has increased during the adaption while the population of compounds metabolizing proteins and carbohydrates went down. Such changes are shown to decrease short chain fatty acids and antioxidants production in the synthetic intestine that may have negative impact on the human health.
According to Oleg Paliy, PhD, an associate professor at the university, intestinal microbes promote various dietary effects on human health and the effects of high-fats and high-carb diets are subject of many research and debates. Previous research has suggested that some amount of carbohydrates are required in the diet for optimum health which when fermented by gut bacteria, produces short chain fatty acids.
Short chain fatty acids have positive effects to the body including regulation of appetite, preventing colorectal cancer risks, and reduction of inflammation in the body. A switch of diet increase carbohydrates metabolizers and cause a decline in the production of short fatty acids as well as antioxidants which are capable of neutralizing free radicals.
To demonstrate how change in diet influence the colon, researchers developed a human gut stimulator which mimics the human colon environment. The device consists of three glass vessels to simulate three regions of the colon where the nutrient were supplied. Human guts microbes are received from fecal donors which are implanted into the device.
After the setup, researchers used high-throughput sequencing and high-performance liquid chromatography to determine the composition and metabolites. They discovered that intestinal microbes are also responsible of several dietary effects as significant amount of dietary fats, proteins and carbohydrates escapes digestion in small intestine. Most of these compounds are collected in colon where a dense population of microbes are present.
Researchers suggest that such kind of studies will help to get strong handle on yielding better nutritional plans for the human. Dr. Paily said, “But there’s still a long way to go.”