Researchers associated with various institutions in Canada and the United States have found evidence that reveals the strength of the material under a neutron star. According to their research, this material – referred to as the “Nuclear Pasta” – is probably the strongest in the entire universe as per their star simulation.
Earlier research revealed that after neutron stars reach a particular age, they tend to explode, loosing neutrinos and become densely packed imparting superior strength to the material. In the new simulation carried out by a trio of Canadian and US researchers, they have reported a confirmation that the material (Nuclear Pasta) below the neutron star’s surface has wide ranging strength. Indiana University researchers have theorized that impact of the gravitational force beneath the area left of the exterior crust of dead stars is highly massive and intense. Based on this theory, scientists have revealed that this immense gravitational force creates different structures that are referred to as Nuclear Pasta.
Nuclear pasta is present under the surface of the neutron star, around one kilometer from its crust. It could be a solid and unique mix of protons and neutrons that take a form resembling various pasta forms such as sheets, tubes and blobs. According to research, density of Nuclear Pasta could be a 100 trillion times more than that of water. To create a dent in such a structure, a force more than 10 billion times that needed to break steel might be necessary, according to researchers.
Though the figures are too high to grasp, the high density of the material enhances its natural ability to become strong to reach this level, say researchers of Indiana University. Replicating the force needed to produce such as material is not possible on Earth, particularly in laboratory environments. Considering the issue, researchers developed computerized simulations in a bid to understand and analyze if this gravitational force replication is possible in cosmos.
According to the report, at present, astronomers are pursuing real world evidence of the newly found material (Nuclear Pasta) by attentively studying previously known neutron stars and are recording their energy output. However, this could be a difficult task, given the speed of the neutron star. Dead neutron stars rapidly spin, attaining a speed or the order of 716 spins per second, totaling up to around 43,000 revolutions every minute, its linear speed reaching about a quarter of the speed of light.
The simulations also reveal that neutron stars might be producing ripples, owing to their immense gravitational pull, in the fabric of space-time. This connects to the conclusion of researchers that neutron stars might be emitting waves that can be observed or monitored using super-sensitive and high power equipment, proving the existence of Nuclear Pasta.